Full question: Hello LInda, Can we get started on Chapter 3 while the Chair is reviewing once again the revision for Chapter 2? Once back from the Chair, it will then go to the committee members for review. While this is happening I figured we could get a jump on Chapter 3, Methodology. Chapter 3 needs to be 24 pages in total at least. These are the titles below and then the rubric which should be followed. I am going to do a pilot test, with questionnaire of 15-20 questions. It should take about 30-45 minutes and questioning with open ended questions from 10-15 administrators and 10-15 faculty. The questionnaires will be conducted online via TEAMS. Data will be collected from leadership and faculty within classes of grades 9-12 high school classes in Port St. Lucie, Florida District Schools, specifically Treasure Coast High School. The study will explore the attitudes, perceptions and experiences of leadership and faculty on the implementation and use of virtual education platforms to facilitate the learning and teaching of classes within a virtual environment. Data will be collected through interviews using an open-ended interview guide and focus groups of ten or more participants who will vary from grade levels and leadership levels. This research will use the interview data to answer the research questions in this study. Data that is collected will be transcribed and then analyzed using a software application such AtlasTi. A free copy of this can be downloaded and used of AtlasTi once the data has been collected from the questionnaires. The data will be categorized into themes or topics from the data. After the data is analyzed it will then be reported using identified themes, illustrative participant quotes, tables, graphs and/or descriptive data. All information will be kept on a secure computer in the home of the researcher. These are the titles and subtitles to be used. Emails will be sent out to the individuals to be questioned. I look forward to hearing from you. Thank you. Joe. CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY Introduction to Chapter 3 Purpose of the Proposed Study Research Questions Research Design Target Population, Sampling Method, and Related Procedures Target Population Sampling Method Sample Size Setting Recruitment Instrumentation Data Collection Data Analysis Procedures Analysis and Procedures Credibility Transferability Dependability Confirmability Ethical Issues Researcher's Position Statement Conflict of interest assessment. Position statement. Ethical Issues in the Study Chapter 3 Summary Rubric Info CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY Introduction The primary purpose for Chapter 3 is to: 1. Explain what you are doing. Explain why you are doing what you are doing and HOW. The introduction restates the study purpose sentence from chapter 1, a brief cited restatement of the study problem from chapter 1, and a brief restatement of the conceptual framework for the study from chapter 1. Does the Introduction to Chapter 3 section: 1. Describe for the reader what the study is designed to do and why 2. Briefly recap the research focus, the general purpose, and the research question(s) and/or hypotheses of the study 3. Identify the general purpose for the study 4. Restate the Research Questions and/or Hypotheses Research Methodology – The research methodology section must provide the reader with details on the type of research methodology that will be used in this study and justify why you selected this methodology. Use research (citations from research textbooks and other studies that have been done on this topic using this methodology) to support your decision. Do NOT talk about the research design (correlation, ex post facto, experimental, descriptive, ethnography, case study, etc.), the population or the sample in this section. Does the Research Methodology section: 1. Briefly recap the research focus, the general purpose, and the research question(s) and/or hypotheses of the study. 2. Identify the research methodology (quantitative or qualitative). 3. Explain the rationale of selecting this particular methodology. 4. Describe the type of data that will be collected to answer the research question(s). 5. Briefly describe the data collection process. (Described in greater detail later in this chapter) 6. Justify what the study is measuring (variables) and how those variables are related if applicable 7. Outline the predicted data results in relation to the hypotheses/research questions based on existing literature 20 Research Design Discuss the design selected to align with the research methodology. The following are some examples of research designs that align to specific methodologies (this list is not all inclusive): Correlational, casual- comparative case study, action research, etc Talk about the design in terms of the research you are doing and not in general terms. Use research (citations from research textbooks and other studies that have been done on this topic using this research design) to support your decision. Do NOT talk about the research methodology, the population, or the sample in this section. You can discuss the data collection tool (e.g., survey, interview, questionnaire, focus group, observation), but not the actual instrument/source of data (e.g., Leadership Behavior Questionnaire, Teacher Demographic Survey) that will be used in your study. Does the Research Design section: 1. Identify the specific type of research design (e.g. descriptive, case study, action research, correlational, causal-comparative, quasi-experimental and experimental) chosen for the study. 2. Explain the rationale of selecting this particular research design. 3. Specify the independent and dependent variables in the research design (for quantitative studies). 4. Specify the phenomena of interest for qualitative studies. 5. Relate the variables back to the research question(s) and hypotheses Target Populations, Sampling Method and Related Procedures Organize this discussion into five sections. Discuss the target population of your study in the first section. Discuss the sample and the sampling methods in the second section. Make sure that in discussing the sample you include the research terminology specific to the type of sampling that you utilized. That is, how did you select the participants for the study? Include number, gender, age, grade, or other category. Distinguish between probability and nonprobability sampling. Target Population What is the target population (total group) of interest in your study? The population of the study is the larger population of interest to which you will generalize your findings. Justify their sampling size for qual methods as well, based on advice from experts and/or similar studies. They should also discuss saturation. Sampling Method What type of sample are you going to use? How will participants or data be selected? What percentage of the approached sample participated? 21 It is impossible to study an entire population. We typically study a subset of people drawn from a larger population and may use inferential statistics/information to make an inference from the sample back to the population. Justify your sampling approach. Sample Size What is the size of your sample? If the sample is too small, it is not representative of the large population to which one hopes to generalize findings. Sample size requirements vary dependent upon the methodology. How was the intended sample size determined (for example, analysis of power for quantitative )? For qualitative studies, discuss saturation. Qualitative Sample Size Requirements: Case Study: A minimum of 10 participants or cases in the final sample for interviews. Phenomenology: Minimum of 8 interviews. Students should pursue 12 individuals to interview to account for attrition. 60-90 minutes interview required Descriptive/exploratory: A minimum of 10 participants in the final sample. Narrative: Minimum of 8 interviews. Students should pursue 12 participants to account for attrition. Grounded Theory: Grounded theory studies yield a theory or model. Usually two rounds of data collection with interim analysis Open ended Questionnaires: This data collection method can be used in different qualitative designs. Setting Describe the setting and participants in the study. What is the setting/location from which participants will be recruited or data collected? Recruitment How did you select the participants for the study? Were there any incentives offered to study participants? How were participants recruited (via mail, email, face-to-face solicitation, other)? Does the Target Populations, Sample Method and Related Procedures section: 1. Introduce the setting for the study. 2. Specify who the study participants are. 3. Describe how the participants will be recruited and selected/excluded. 4. Describe the sample size and the participants that were excluded or dropped out. 22 5. Explain the rationale for setting the target sample size 6. Accurately and adequately describe the population and sample Instrumentation and/or Sources of Data: The length of this section depends on the study. Use instrumentation heading if you are doing quantitative research that has data collection instruments. Use the “Sources of Data” heading if you are conducting qualitative research or quantitative research where archival data is used. If you have multiple tools that will be used to collect data, use subheadings for each. Keep in mind the following questions when completing this section: • What types of data are you collecting (observations, standardized tests, surveys, interviews, documents)? That is, how will you measure each of the variables in your study? • Will you use existing instruments? If so, you need to include everything about this instrument (i.e., how it was developed, for what purpose, how it was constructed, reliability and validity of the initial instrument, how the instrument is organized, how many items are on the instrument, how the computation of the items from the instrument is done, etc.) • Are you using instruments that you have developed? If so, describe the development process. Keep in mind that if you will develop the instrument, then you will need to field test it. As such, you will need to add a section for a Pilot Study (For quantitative) or Panel of Experts (Qualitative) (to follow this section). Does the Instrumentation and/or Sources of Data Section: 1. Identify and describes the types of data that will be collected and how it will be collected (e.g., observations, standardized tests, surveys, interviews, documents). 2. Identify how each data relates to the variables in the study and how each will be measured. 3. Identify and describes the data collection instruments that will be used in the study 4. Describe the reliability and validity of the data collection instruments for the population of the study. 5. Describe the development process and how the instruments will be field tested if necessary. Data Collection Prior to beginning the discussion in the data collection section, you must discuss the approvals that were received (e.g., IRB, superintendent of the school district if the school is a public school, principal of the school) to conduct the study. The discussion in 23 this section also needs to include every detail about how the data will be collected no matter how small the detail. Another person needs to be able to replicate each step that you will do in your data collection process. So, think about providing a chronological list of steps that was taken to complete the data collection. That means the contact that is made with the participants (e.g., who will do it, when, in what manner), the actual administration of the data collection tool (e.g., how will this be done, who will do it, in what setting) as well as informed consent. Does the Data Collection Section: 1. Describe the source/instrumentation from which data is collected. 2. Describe the exact procedure of collecting data from the identified source/instrumentation. 3. Describe the context (spatial-temporal context, who is present… etc.) where data collection takes place. 4. Describe the measures taken to ensure the validity and reliability of the data throughout the data collection process Field Test /Pilot Test Read the following discussion on field tests and pilot tests: If you propose to design and develop your own instrument, a separate field test of the data collection tools and procedures and of the overall integrity of the design is often appropriate. In other cases, you may need to conduct a more formal pilot study to establish the reliability and validity of the instrument or to determine if the proposed research procedures will produce the anticipated results. (These procedures are most likely used in quantitative studies.) Field tests are often recommended to assess the strength of research questions/hypotheses or to test the appropriateness of certain data-gathering protocols (e.g., informed consent procedures), instruments/tools (e.g., item content), and data analysis procedures. The proposal should include a description of the field testing of a collection method or instrument without the use of human participants (e.g., conducted through expert review or judgment). Such field tests may be conducted prior to the IRB approval. On the other hand, any “live” piloting of instruments to establish the reliability and validity of a customized instrument must first receive IRB approval. A pilot study is most likely called for when you propose to design and validate a quantitative instrument intended for use as part of a larger study or to determine the reasonableness of the anticipated outcomes. A pilot study uses actual participants from the population upon which you are basing your study. 24 This section is necessary only if you conducted a Pilot Study or used a Panel of Experts to validate an instrument that you created, or if you revised another person’s instrument for your study. Use the heading that is appropriate for your study; do not use both unless both were completed. In the content of this section, you also need to discuss why these people (panel of experts or the participants who were used for the study) were chosen and how they determined the appropriateness of the instrument content. You must use research language to explain what you discuss. Instrument Validity/Reliability: Pilot Study A pilot study includes actual participants from the population upon which the study will be based to assess the validity of instruments/tools. Pilot studies are typically recommended when a researcher has created an instrument that is intended to measure something, or when a researcher has modified a valid instrument to the point that new validity information is necessary. Does the Field Test/Pilot Test/Expert Panel section: 1. Identify why a Field Test, Pilot Study or Panel of Experts was chosen to validate an instrument you created 2. Identify why you chose to use another person’s instrument for your study 3. Discuss why the people (panel of experts or the people that were used in the pilot study) were chosen 4. Discuss how the panel of experts or the people that were used in the pilot study determined the appropriateness of the instrument content 5. Use the research language appropriate to help explain what you are talking about Data Analysis Procedures The data analysis procedures section is an important component of Chapter 3. It should provide sufficient detail so that it takes a reader step by step through the process of how each research question will be answered, and when applicable, how each null hypothesis will be tested. The section will be developed differently depending on whether the student is proposing a quantitative or qualitative study. As with the other sections of Chapter 3, the data analysis procedures should be written as a detailed blueprint, showing each step the student intends to take (for the proposal) or actually took (for the completed dissertation) to analyze the data. The data analysis procedures section not only serves as a detailed road map for analysis but also provides clear direction to other researchers who wish to replicate the study. 25 Does the Data Analysis Procedures section: 1. Provide a step-by-step description of the procedures to be used or conduct the data analysis. 2. Describe in detail the relevant data collected for each stated research question and/or hypothesis. 3. Describe in detail any statistical analysis to be employed for each stated research question and/or hypothesis. 4. Describe in detail any non-statistical analysis to be employed for each stated research question and/or hypothesis. 5. Provide a clear rationale for each of the (statistical and non-statistical) data analysis procedures employed in the study 6. Describe the alignment between the research questions, research methodologies, types of data to be collected and proposed data analysis 7. Use consistent language through the proposal to describe the type of design and data analysis plans Trustworthiness or Validity and Reliability For qualitative studies, this section is entitled Trustworthiness. For quantitative studies, it is entitled Validity and Reliability. For trustworthiness, present a rationale for how the four criteria for the assurances of data trustworthiness are met (credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability). For quantitative studies, justification for appropriate data assumption tests are presented along with appropriate interpretation of validity and reliability of the data gathered. Internal Validity Discuss your strategies for ensuring the internal validity of your proposed research design; in other words, the internal validity of your study. Internal validity in a quantitative study is the extent to which a study and its data results allow the researcher to draw accurate conclusions about the relationships found, such as cause and effect or correlation. Internal validity is important to determine whether the results of a study will determine a comparable accurate response. In an experimental study, internal validity reflects the extent to which the researcher has controlled for extraneous variables so that any observed effects can be solely attributed to the treatment variable. In other nonexperimental quantitative studies, internal validity is the summation reasons why the researcher will be confident that any conclusions the researcher makes are warranted from the data collected and the method used. 26 Does the Internal Validity section: 1. Discuss the strategies for ensuring the internal validity of the proposed research design 2. Demonstrate that the study methodology controls for extraneous or confounding variables 3. Demonstrate that the study methodology rules out alternative explanations 4. Demonstrate that the study methodology rules out rival hypotheses 5. Reiterates the appropriateness of your instruments/data sources in terms of the validity and reliability 6. Discuss the sample size relative to confidence limits and statistical power. 7. Emphasize the triangulation that you have incorporated in your method 8. Emphasize how the limitations in your study and selection of key variables will preclude drawing an invalid conclusion External Validity External validity refers to the extent to which the results of the study apply to situations beyond the study itself. External validity is important to defending a research method because it determines how applicable research is to beyond the study. Discuss your strategies for ensuring the external validity of your proposed study. Will your findings have potential generalizability? Why or why not? Does the External Validity section? 1. Identify the extent to which the results of the study apply to situations beyond the study itself 2. Discuss the strategies for ensuring the external validity of the proposed study 3. Describes how the findings will have potential generalizability Trustworthiness: (for Qualitative Studies) Trustworthiness is the term used to describe the elements that establish the credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability of the study. Strategies generally include rigorous techniques and methods, thick description, audit trails, evident methodological processes and procedures, well-defined coding, ample examples of quotes, and findings that clearly emerge from the data. Make sure that you define the concepts of credibility, dependability, transferability, and confirmability, and describe the threats to these concepts inherent in the study design, sampling strategy, data collection method/instruments, and data analysis and addresses how these threats will be minimized. 27 Also make sure appendices include copies of instruments, materials, qualitative data collection protocols, codebooks, and permission letters from instrument authors (for validated instruments, surveys, interview guides, etc.) where applicable. Does the Trustworthiness section? 1. Define the concepts of credibility, dependability, transferability, and confirmability. 2. Describe the threats to the credibility, dependability, transferability, and confirmability of the study inherent in the study design, sampling strategy, data collection method/instruments, and data analysis 3. Address how these threats will be minimized Ethical Issues Discuss the ethical issues and how they will be addressed. These ethical issues include approval prior to beginning from IRB, informed consent if applicable, voluntary nature of study, protecting the identity of the participants, protection of confidentiality, reporting the results of the study, and data storage. Does the Ethical Issues section? 1. Describe how the identity of the participants in the study will be protected 2. Discuss potential ethical concerns during the data collection process 3. Describe how the data collected will be safeguarded 4. Describe how the results of the study will be published 5. Identify any potential conflict of interest and explain how its effect on the results is minimized Researcher’s Position Statement Conflict of interest assessment. Researchers are required to ensure that academic, financial, or other personal interests do not compromise the objectivity with which their research is designed, conducted, and reported. Researchers and research supervisors are responsible for disclosing any personal relationships or financial interests that may present conflicts of interest and developing a plan to eliminate or manage potential conflicts of interest. Prior to approval of research studies that may present a conflict of interest, the IRB committee or designated reviewer will make a determination as to whether there was conflict. If applicable, explain how there will be no conflict of interest. If there is a potential or perceived conflict of interest, identify it and provide your strategies to avoid or mitigate a conflict of interest. Position statement. Develop a brief position statement section. Describe your relationship to the problem, organization (if applicable), and potential participants. 28 Describe your views on this topic and problem and the strategies you will take to avoid imposing your bias on the proposed study and findings. This is an important subsection in terms of eliminating committee member’s questions about your position, biases, and potential conflicts of interest at the proposal conference call. It is far more productive to address these issues with committee members during the proposal development/approval stage than at the proposal conference call. Does the Researcher’s Position Statement section? 1. Identify any potential academic, financial or other personal interests that might compromise the objectivity with which their research is designed, conducted and reported. 2. Disclose any personal relationships or financial interests that may present conflicts of interest 3. Describe a plan to eliminate or manage potential conflicts of interest 4. Describe strategies to avoid or mitigate a conflict interest Summary of Chapter 3 Briefly summarize the salient points from chapter three. You goal should be to reinforce to your reader how your choice of method, data collection and data analysis clearly align with the research problem and research question. This section should be brief but compelling. Remember a proposal proposes research to be conducted and you want your reader to conclude that your proposal (a) addresses a practical problem with researching, (b) has a stand-alone literature review that presents the current research knowledge regarding your topic/problem, and (c) is capable [via the methodology] of answering the primary research question and additional questions you are posing. Does the Summary of Chapter 3 section? 1. Summarize the salient points from Chapter 3 2. Reinforce to the reader how the choice of method, data collection, and data analysis clearly align with the research problem and research question. Include transition to chapter 4 in description
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