RESPONSE ESSAY


Full question: SO I TOOK LOW GRADE ON LAST ORDER FOR THIS CLASS YOU GUYS DID SO I WILL ATTACH EXAMPLE OF A PAPER DONE FOR ME BEFORE AND I GOT A GOOD GRADE AND I WILL POST FOR YOU WHAT THE INSTRUCTOR COMMENT ON THE ORDER SO YOU MAKE SURE TO AVOID ERRORS This week we discuss social security and rising government debt. We examine in particular how America's social security works and what challenges it is likely to face in the near future. We also investigate why US government debt has risen so high and what policies under George W. Bush and Barack Obama contributed to the soaring budget deficits, which still affect the US economy today in many ways. ASSIGNMENT: Read MSSD, Ch. 17 (pp. 401-408) and address the questions below: a. What are Contributory Insurance Programs, and how do social security and Medicare work? Who are eligible - "the retirement age" - for social security and Medicare, and how does the federal government secure funds for those programs (social security tax rate and Medicare tax rate)? What’s the often-cited, most serious problem America's social security will face in the near future? Watch Ten Trillion and Counting and read MSSD, Ch. 17 (pp. 394-399) and address the questions below: b. What is Mandatory Spending and what is Discretionary Spending, and spending on what items/programs do they include? US debt stands as of now at around $22 trillion (see the link below, "US Debt Clock"). What policies (specific programs) under Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama gave rise to the ballooning budget deficits and soaring government debt? PLEASE STICK TO THE BOOK DO NOT ADD ANYTHING FROM ONLINE THE COMMENT FOR PREVIOUS ORDER: Citations provided. Please use assigned material for pertinent information. a. 9 Super PACs began to be created following the US Supreme Court’s ruling in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010). The Supreme Court ruled in this important case that the First Amendment prohibits the government from limiting political expenditures by corporations and labor unions. But in order to avoid the appearance of corruption, these donors should make their political speech through “independent,” “outside” groups that do not coordinate with candidates. Hence created, super PACs raise unlimited sums of money from businesses, labor groups, and wealthy individuals, and use them to elect or defeat particular candidates – “electioneering” or “campaigning.” Most importantly, super PACs are prohibited from “coordinating” with the candidates they support. Donors to Super PACs need to disclose their identity, whereas contributors to 501(c)4 organizations can remain anonymous. 501(c)4 organizations are “civic leagues (organizations)” and “social welfare” groups, and are known as such because of the section code used by the Internal Revenue Service. 501(c) is the designated code for non-profit organizations and 501(c) organizations are usually exempted from federal income tax. 501(c)4 organizations include Rotary Clubs, Kiwanis Clubs, Lions Clubs, volunteer fire departments, and the Miss America Organization, among others. As “social welfare” groups, 501(c)4 organizations can engage in political activity as long as (1) it is not their primary activity – that is, spending on political activity should be less than 50% of their budget and (2) their political activity is not about electing or defeating particular candidates – they’re social welfare groups and their primary activity should be promoting common good and general welfare of the people. This means that 501(c)4 organizations are not allowed to endorse/oppose political candidates by using the “magic words” – such as “elect,” “vote for,” and “defeat” – in their ads. These organizations are only allowed to promote social welfare – such as protection of the environment, preservation of “tradition,” etc. – through political activity. b. 5

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